Arabic / Islamic geometry 01

It creates an immediately recognisable identity, one that is founded in an all-embracing philosophical and cosmological approach to the creation of designed and constructed works, contrasting multiplicity and unity. It honours nature in an abstract decorative art, and benefits through its lack of restriction by the constraints of a numerical system. A brief introduction to the history of Arabic or Islamic geometry is set out on the next page together with methods by which those geometries can be readily constructed using the traditional means of a straight edge and a pair of compasses. These first four illustrations are of Islamic geometric patterns that have been executed on different materials, respectively silver, stone, leather and glazed mosaic, and are commonly considered representative of Islamic design. While not demonstrating the wide variety of geometric treatments to be found in Islamic or Arab geometries, they are here to introduce something of the design character and materials that were used in decoration. But having said that, I believe it would be useful to begin this page with a note on the understanding we in the West have of Arabic or, perhaps more accurately, Islamic geometrical design as it is a wide field of study and there are many misconceptions about its origins, interpretation and character. The patterns with which we are familiar are to be found within a variety of Islamic cultures, but are often considered to be common to areas of Arab conquest. At its simplest, Arab scholarship enlarged our comprehension of underlying geometries, and Muslim craftsmen, not all of them Arabs, relied on this body of knowledge in producing their characteristic fields of tiles, mosaic, plaster and wooden patterns that were applied to elements of their buildings. Generally they are seen as two-dimensional surface treatments, though there are examples of three-dimensional work in many areas of the Islamic world, particularly with the muqarnas. To take the argument a little further, the distinction might suggest that the work is considered Islamic when employed in the service of religious buildings.

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This dramatic event, counted as Seleucus’ first regal year, was continued as the Seleucid Era, the first continuous count of time in world chronology, soon to inspire the similar Arsacid Era of Parthia. There is also the residual uncertainty about Hellenistic dating. Bickerman, for instance, positively asserted that Seleucus reconquered Babylon “in August of ” [Chronology of the Ancient World, Cornell University Press, , , , p. Seleucus] was given a thousand men by Ptolemy and set out from Palestine to Babylonia” [Dividing the Spoils, Oxford, , p.

While we may have more confidence in up-to-date scholarship, sometimes older analyses are later vindicated. As recounted above , Seleucus had to fend off two major efforts against him to recover Babylon for Antigonus Monophthalmos.

Much of earlier Greek work has been lost to us and we must be grateful to Arab mathematicians who carried out work based on Greek traditions.

The Aramaic language has fewer consonants than Arabic, so during the 7th century new Arabic letters were created by adding dots to existing letters in order to avoid ambiguities. Further diacritics indicating short vowels were introduced, but are only generally used to ensure the Qur’an was read aloud without mistakes. There are two main types of written Arabic: Classical Arabic – the language of the Qur’an and classical literature.

It differs from Modern Standard Arabic mainly in style and vocabulary, some of which is archaic. All Muslims are expected to recite the Qur’an in the original language, however many rely on translations in order to understand the text. It is the language of the vast majority of written material and of formal TV shows, lectures, etc.

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The earliest are written in variants of epigraphic south Arabian musnad script, including the 8th century BCE Hasaean inscriptions of eastern Saudi Arabia, the 6th century BCE Lihyanite texts of southeastern Saudi Arabia and the Thamudic texts found throughout the Arabian Peninsula and Sinai not in reality connected with Thamud.

Their early inscriptions were in Aramaic , but gradually switched to Arabic, and since they had writing, it was they who made the first inscriptions in Arabic. The Nabataean alphabet was adopted by Arabs to the south, and evolved into modern Arabic script around the 4th century. This is attested by Safaitic inscriptions beginning in the 1st century BCE and the many Arabic personal names in Nabataean inscriptions.

Eastern Christendom was riddled with sects and heretical movements.

Recently I came across a couple of studies that were among the first I carried out; some others have been lost and some are in private ownership. The studies which follow are all based on patterns I saw and explored, and I thought it might be useful to place them here for the record. Unfortunately there is no record of the examples they were taken from, so they will just have to stand as drafting exercises. I should also admit that these sketches are based on the original photographs of the studies, most of the original drawings having been lost — the photographs being the only record I have of them, but which are in too poor condition to be reproduced.

The illustration above, from which the three following details have been taken, is of one of the original drawings I made in the early s. The width shown is around mm of the original. Although the paper has discoloured slightly with the passage of time, the draftsmanship can still be examined. It is placed here to show something of the concentration that goes into study of this character of geometry as well as the accuracy I tried to maintain in drafting.

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So suggests new research that tracked changes in two genes thought to help regulate brain growth, changes that appeared well after the rise of modern humans , years ago. That the defining feature of humans — our large brains — continued to evolve as recently as 5, years ago, and may be doing so today, promises to surprise the average person, if not biologists. Lahn and colleagues examined two genes, named microcephalin and ASPM, that are connected to brain size.

If those genes don’t work, babies are born with severely small brains, called microcephaly. Using DNA samples from ethnically diverse populations, they identified a collection of variations in each gene that occurred with unusually high frequency.

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Arabic / Islamic geometry 02

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Rough, light brown, somewhat in parts dark coloured papyrus. The Byzantine protocol in Greek is written in four lines with brown ink parallel to the vertical fibres. In the last line of the protocol text an line in Arabic in black ink is parallel to the vertical fibres, which shows the typical writing features of the first half of the 1st century of hijra and is partly dotted.

This papyrus deals with a dispute and its possible resolution. It is also the earliest papyrus to mention the phrase “peace be upon him who follows the guidance”; part of the phrase constructed as lacuna. In its content, it is similar to the Qurra papyrus such as this from 91 AH. The Arabic text is written in on the recto in black ink at right-angles to the horizontal fibres; the Greek text running in the same direction is written in the brown ink.

Dating

Introduction Radiocarbon, or Carbon dating, was developed by W. It is perhaps one of the most widely used and best known absolute dating methods and has become an indispensable part of an archaeologist’s tool-kit. In , Libby was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry for radiocarbon dating. This will enable the reader to gain an appreciation of the advantages and disadvantages of this process.

Is carbon dating applied to the Qur’anic manuscripts?

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